Table of Contents
- 1 North Sumatra Traditional Houses
- 2 Value of Philosophy
- 3 West Sumatra Traditional Houses
- 3.1 Sumatra Traditional House (Rumah Gadang)
- 3.2 Philosophy of Sumatra Traditional House – Rumah Gadang
Sumatra Traditional House –Indonesian culture is very diverse. Its cultural assets include traditional houses, clothes, dances, weapons, tribes, folk songs and regional languages. One province that has a diverse culture is North Sumatra.
One culture that is still maintained until now is the Sumatra Traditional House that is still easily found. The provinces with thousands of cities in Medan are mostly inhabited by Batak tribes. Is the most tribal and is a native tribe there.
Batak tribe is the second largest tribe after the Javanese tribe. Bataks are also grouped into sub-tribes. Among the toba, karo, simalungun, angkola, pak pak and mandailing. Each nation has its own distinct culture. Can be seen from the traditional houses of each sub-tribe. Although that has been recognized nationally, the traditional house of Bolon. To find out more about traditional houses. Here are the types of traditional houses in North Sumatra with their philosophy and function:
North Sumatra Traditional Houses
Batak tribe has several traditional houses. North Sumatran traditional houses include traditional houses of Karo, Mandailing, Nias, Bolon, Malay and Pakpak. Each has a different culture and uniqueness respectively. Here are the reviews:
1. Karo Traditional House
Is one of the traditional houses of North Sumatra which is also often referred to as the Siwaluh Jabu traditional house. Eating from the name of siwaluh jabu is a house that is inhabited by eight families. And every family has their respective roles in the house.
The placement of the family in a karo house is determined by adat. Consists of jabu ginger or jabu downriver finger and jabu julu or jabu hulu. While jabu ginger is divided into two, namely jabu wood end and jabu rumah sendipar wood end.
2. Nias Traditional House
The second Sumatra Traditional House is the traditional house of Nias. Often called Omo Hada, this traditional house takes the form of a traditional stage house for the people of Nias. There are also nias houses with different designs. The house is the residence of the head of the country (tuhenori), the head of the village (salawa) or the aristocracy and is often referred to by the name omo sebua.
The traditional Nias house is built on a tall wooden pillar of Nibung and is also large and is supported by sago palm. The plan is that the shape of the telet bullet is in the eastern, western, and northern regions. Whereas in the central and southern regions of Nias the shape of the plan is rectangular.
3. Mandailing Traditional House
Mandailing tribe is a tribe located in North Sumatra Province which borders Riau Province. It has a very charming tourist destination and a culture of local wisdom that is still held tightly by local residents. In In the Mandailing Natal district, traditional Mandailing houses are found.
Mandailing Natal Regency is part of the Old Padang and South Tapanuli. Mandailing traditional house is also often referred to as bagas godang. Bagas which means home and godang which mean a lot in mandailing language.
It is often called the Batak Batak Balai house and has been recognized nationally as the representative of the Sumatra Traditional House. This traditional house is categorized as a stage and rectangular. And almost all of them are made from natural ingredients.
Occupants of this traditional house are usually 4-6 families who live together. Stilt houses are made so that the house has a pit. Which is usually used for cage Batak community pets, such as chickens, pigs and goats.
Value of Philosophy
Used as a Sumatra Traditional House. Bolon traditional house has its own uniqueness in terms of architectural design. So that it can be a differentiator from traditional houses with other provinces. The following are the typical characteristics of Bolon traditional house including:
- The walls are short but enough to stand because they don’t use a ceiling.
- The roof is like a saddle with a very narrow angle so it looks quite high.
- At the top decorated with matting to beautify the appearance of the house.
- The top of the door is decorated with animal or groga paintings. Like a buffalo or lizard painting with dominant red, white and black colors. The lizard symbol has a meaning that the Batak community has a strong sense of brotherhood among its neighbors. While the buffalo symbol is a sign of thanks.
Function of North Sumatra Traditional House
In the past, the Bolon traditional house was the residence of 13 Batak kings. But as time evolved it became a home for the Batak people in general. To support some of the functions of the Sumatra Traditional House divided into several rooms.
- Jabu Bong Room. The function of this room is a special room for the head of the family which is located behind the right hand corner.
- Jabu Soding Room is a special room intended for girls located in the left hand corner and facing jabu bong.
- Jabu Suhat Room. The function of this room is for a married boy to be in front of the left hand corner.
- Plate Slap Room is a room to welcome guests who are located next to jabu suhat.
- Jabu Tonga Room Rona Ni Jabu Rona is a family room located in the middle and the biggest of the other rooms.
- Underwater as a place to store food and livestock as well as a stable.
The division does not mean separated by a dividing wall. In general, a spacious room and without a divider. However these rules are separated by customary rules which limit and bind mainly family members and guests who come.
By the way it is a kind of Sumatra Traditional House along with its philosophy and uniqueness. Traditional houses in northern Sumatra include karo, bolon, mandailing, Malay and Nias. Each traditional house has its own unique design.
West Sumatra Traditional Houses
Sumatra Traditional House – West Sumatra the capital city is Padang City. This province is located west of the island of Sumatra, as the name suggests. In the western part of the island there are also other small islands.
There are so many uniqueness in this province that has become a regional characteristic such as the Sumatra Traditional House, regional dances, regional musical instruments and special food. Most of these people in West Sumatra are the Minangkabau people.
The Minangkabau tribe is believed to be a native population and the majority are there. The Minangkabau tribe commonly known as the Minang people have close ties with the Malay tribe which is known to have many cultures and is unique.
The people there are known for being good at business, good at cooking and fond of migrating. One of the cultural icons of this province is the Sumatra Traditional House. More clearly the following is a complete explanation of this traditional house.
Sumatra Traditional House (Rumah Gadang)
The name of the Sumatra Traditional House is the traditional house of Gadang or the traditional house of Godang. The traditional house is also commonly called the local community as Bagonjong House and Baanjuang House. The Minangkabau area which is permitted to establish traditional houses only in areas that have nagari status.
This traditional house has a very unique feature of a non-slip roof like the buffalo horn body structures built like ships. It is called Bagonjong House because of its pointed and curved roof form called Gonjong.
The Origin of the Gadang Traditional House
The first thing that will be discussed is the most striking part, the roof of the Gadang house. The shape of the roof of the Gadang house which is almost similar to buffalo horn is often associated with local folklore namely “Tambo Alam Minangkabau”. It tells about the victory of the Minang against Javanese in the case of buffalo fighting.
Symbols that are similar to buffalo horn are often used, either as symbols or in jewelry. One of them is in the traditional clothing of West Sumatra.
In addition, the origin of the gadang house is also often associated with the journey of Minang ancestors. The story is, the shape of the gadang house is made to resemble the shape of a ship used by ancestors in ancient times.
According to the story, this ancestral ship sailed towards the upstream of Kampar Batang. After arriving in an area the crew descended ashore and when it was also lifted to the mainland.
The ship is then supported by strong wood so that it can stand firmly. The ship was given a roof by hanging the sail on a rope that hooked to the mast of the ship. Because the hanging screen is so heavy that the ropes form a curve similar to an oval.
This ship is a temporary shelter. Next the crew made a house that resembled the ship. After they have spread and are descendants, the shape of a ship that is ostensibly used as a reference or a distinctive kiss of their home.
With this characteristic they become easier to recognize their offspring. They will easily find out that houses that have oaks are their relatives. Behind this beautiful West Sumatra traditional house, there is a philosophy. Here is the philosophy of Rumah Gadang
The uniqueness of the Gadang House
This West Sumatra Traditional House also has its own uniqueness like other traditional houses in Indonesia. Here are interesting facts from Rumah gadang that are not yet known in general
1. Room Conditions Gadang House
The room in the gadang house is rectangular in shape. Overall it is divided into linear and loose spaces divided by pole boundaries. These poles are arranged from front to back and from left to right.
The number of stands of this house depends on the area of the house, generally the number is odd from three to eleven. At the front of the house there is a small building that functions as a store of rice.
On the side there is a bridge that serves as a place for wedding ceremonies or other religious ceremonies. While the kitchen is built separately.
2. Carving Decoration
The front wall of the house is made of boards arranged vertically and filled with unique carvings. While the back is coated with bamboo. Placement of the existing carving motif depends on the composition and location of the board. Carving motifs that are often used are leaves, flowers, fruit and other plants
Uniquely, the Sumatra Traditional House is anti-earthquake. The gadang house was built according to its natural environment which was prone to echoes. This house was built with long pillars supported which rose up and were resistant to shocks.
4. Similar to the Stage House
The shape of this gadang house was built to form like a house on stilts. The height of this house on stilts reaches 2 meters above ground level. In front of the house has a ladder that is used to avoid wild animals.
5. Has Four Main Poles
This West Sumatra traditional house has 4 main pillars of juha trees. This pole has a diameter of 40cm to 60cm. Before being used as a pole for this house, the juha tree was soaked in a pond for years to produce a strong and sturdy pole.
Philosophy of Sumatra Traditional House – Rumah Gadang
Minang tribe is very close to natural philosophy. Therefore they make this house look harmonious with the nature there in the form of Bukit Barisan whose curved peak rises in the middle and the slope lines are curved and extend downward.
In terms of functionality, the lines in the Gadang house show compatibility with tropical nature. The taper roof is useful for facilitating rainwater from above gliding well and freeing water deposits.
The shape of the gadang house was built with aesthetic conditions and was assessed in accordance with unity, harmony, balance in one integrated unit. The gadang house was built in line with the direction of the compass from north to south which served to free the house from the sun’s heat and strong winds.
In terms of philosophy that is noted in the expression of the traditional elders stating that the Great Gadang House is not in size, but has a large function for the life of the Minang community.
They stated that the function of the gadang house was to encompass the daily life of the Minangkabau people. Includes shelter and family residence, as a residence, as a center for carrying out various traditional ceremonies.
The gadang house is a useful building for the Minangkabau people to discuss their problems together.
Traditional and Daily Gadang Houses
The Sumatra Traditional House is not only rich in meaning and philosophy, but this house also has a function that includes all the daily activities of the Minangkabau people. Consists of two functions, namely customary functions and daily functions. Here is the function
Traditional Rumah Gadang
As a traditional house, Rumah Gadang is used by the Minangkabau people to hold traditional events and other important events related to other tribes.
The ceremonies performed at this traditional house such as circumcision, bathing, marriage, appointment of chief / Datuak and death ceremonies. The function of the traditional gadang house is only temporary. This means that only at any time there are activities and not everyday.
Rumah Gadang daily life
Like other houses, the traditional house of Gadang also functions as a place to accommodate the daily activities of its inhabitants. Rumah Gadang is usually inhabited by large families.
Here, what is meant by extended family is father, mother, and daughter. Whereas boys have no place in the Gadang house. The number of rooms is adjusted according to the number of girls living in it.
This function is more dominant in the Rumah Gadang. As usual home, this is where the daily family activities occur. Such as eating, gathering, sleeping and others that are more often done in addition to the traditional activities above.
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