The planning function in management is one of the most important parts in the management world. The plan is the initial process to decide the goals to be achieved. In other words, planning is a determinant of success for something that will be done.
For the discussion this time we will review about planning which in this case covers the functions, processes, benefits, objectives & examples so that we can better understand and understand the full review below.
The process of defining organizational goals, developing strategies to achieve those objectives, and developing an organizational work plan. the plan is the process of determining what must be done by the company and how the best way to do that and the selection of a set of activities and the next deciding what to do, when, how and by whom.
The plan is the most important process of all management functions because without plan other functions; organization, direction, and control will not work. An informal plan is an unwritten plan and is not a shared goal of the members of an organization.
Basic Stage of planning
All plan activities go through the following 4 stages.
- Stage 1
Setting goals or a series of plan goals starts with decisions about the desires or needs of the organization or workgroup. Without a clear goal-setting, the organization will use its resources ineffectively.
- Stage 2
Formulating the current situation Understanding of the company’s current position of the objectives to be achieved or the resources available to achieve the goals is very important because the goals and plans involve the time to come. Only after the current state of the company has been analyzed can plans be formulated to illustrate plans for further activities. This second phase requires information-especially financial and statistical data obtained through communication within the organization.
- Stage 3
Identifying all facilities and obstacles All strengths and weaknesses, as well as facilities and obstacles, need to be identified to measure the ability of the organization in achieving its goals. Therefore it is necessary to know the internal and external environmental factors that can help the organization achieve its goals, or which may cause problems. Even though it is difficult to do, anticipating the circumstances, problems, and opportunities and threats that might occur in the future is an essential part of the plan process.
- Stage 4
Develop a plan or series of activities to achieve goals The final stage in the plan process involves developing various alternative activities to achieve the objectives, evaluating these alternatives and selecting the best (most satisfying) alternative among the various alternatives.
The purpose of planning
The purpose of the plan, in which it describes the environment in which the plan takes place, we continue to discuss why action planning is carried out. Ultimate goals cannot be assessed from within the system: there is a need to rely on outside criteria to evaluate those goals. We will limit our discussion to the presentation of the objectives implicit in the business plan. Can be seen the main purpose of plan (external objectives), not for substantive matters (internal needs) such as urban renewal, harmonious relations of land use, or most beneficial outputs.
the plan has worked for several reasons, one of which can serve independently or in combination with others as a planning goal. Critics of the efficacy, direction, and value of contemporary plan must recognize the possibility of such a variety of perspectives, they may then see that means in different questions for different purposes.
There is a class of goals it seems. The first is efficiency and rational action, the second is marked assistance or replacement, and the third can be labelled as changing or widening options.
- Efficiency and rational action. In the world of scarcity, there is a need to conserve resources and also to allocate them efficiently.
- Market assistance or replacement. planning will be of little if any, use for an environment in which an open, truly competitive market (whether political or economic) is operated perfectly. Such a market will mean that both buyers and sellers are fully aware of the relative value over time of the items and services they are seeking and possessing, buying and selling, and all the alternatives they have.
- Changes or widening of choices. Given the scarcity, social and individual choices must be made about how resources must be allocated: how, when, to whom, for what purpose, and in that combination. planning can serve as a vehicle for depicting utopian solutions.
planning starts from the formulation of objectives, collecting data, then the data is analyzed, making alternatives and concepts then implemented and will produce new goals. The formulation of objectives can be achieved if there are sufficient data/representation and measurable (specific) clarity including Aspect (Substance), Space (Location/place),
Resources (human resources about the expertise or specific knowledge of each person, capital resources are needs in the planning process and time resources, duration of time, how long the results will be achieved). The more limited the resources, the more planning must be made for the welfare of the population.
The plan process is a series of activities related to one another / supporting each other in achieving goals in the future. The ongoing plan process requires a careful plan, placement, and other resources to achieve goals, plan goals can be determined by a planner/government. plan is based on data that:
- Relevant to objectives (aspects, space, time, source of funds)
- Accuracy (exact) is the analysis itself (primary data), as well as data based on the source (secondary data)
Then analyzed into a piece of accurate information as a determinant of the implementation of succession planning. A plan can be said to be successful if the result reaches the expected goal, completed within the allotted time. However, if there are obstacles in planning, the consequences need additional time for the achievement of better results, which is development progress in the future.
Benefits of planning
The benefits of planning are:
- A form of planning can make the implementation of the task appropriate and the activities of each unit will be well organized in the same direction.
- Planning that is compiled from accurate research will avoid mistakes that might occur.
- A plan containing standards or limits on actions and costs will facilitate the implementation of supervision.
- plan can be used as a guideline for carrying out activities so that the implementing apparatus has the same rhythm or motion and views to achieve company goals.
The planning function is a decision-making process concerning the desired results, with the use of resources and the establishment of a communication system that allows reporting and controlling the final results and comparison of these results with plans made.
Many uses of plan that are creating efficiency and effectiveness in the implementation of company activities can make corrections to irregularities as soon as possible, identify obstacles that arise avoiding activities, growth and change that are not directed and controlled.
The components needed in planning are as follows:
- Achievement of objectives
In plan, the main components that are desired are to achieve the desired goals.
- Optional exercises
planning is the process of determining the future through a series of choices (choices)
- Orientation to the future
Time is a resource to determine how long the results will be achieved because it is future-oriented. Each of the main objectives of the plan implies a need in the present for information about the future.
Estimates of future stares are also important. Besides, planning includes costs for setting deferred goals of satisfaction and losses arising from deferred action. The task of calculating the interest rate thus implicitly includes a plan.
planning is used to bring results. This is a step in the chain ending means leading to what is desired.
planning functions to connect the components of a system. To enable decision-makers to choose rationally among alternative programs, planners must fully derail the consequences of proposals. In the imperfect world of knowledge, these requirements must be balanced with action.
- What actions must be done
- What is the reason for these actions must be done
- Where the action is carried out
- When the action was taken
- Who will carry out these actions
- How to carry out these actions.
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