Organizing: Definition and Principles

Organizing is the process of designing and developing an organization to achieve certain goals. This function creates a formal structure that shows that the assignment has been assigned, shared and coordinated. In management, this function is intended so that organizational goals can be achieved.

Understanding Organizing

Organizing is one of 4 management functions. Generally, organizational system function is carried out after the planning function.

This can be seen from the order of 4 management functions which include Planning, Organizing, Leadership and Control which in English is usually referred to as POLC (Planning, Organizing, Leading and Controlling).

To discuss further about organizing, we need to know what is meant by the Organization which is the basic word from the term “Organizing”.

According to Dian Wijayanto (2012: 126), an organization is a collection of two or more people who work together in a structured way to achieve goals. Organizational goals are the results of decisions made in the planning phase.

So here it is more clearly said that the organization will be carried out after the Planning.

Whereas Organizing is a process for determining, grouping, organizing and forming work relationship patterns from people to achieve their organizational goals.

According to Schermerhorn (1996: 218), Organizing is the process of organizing people and other resources to work towards a common goal.

In organizing, the preparation of the organizational structure is very important so that everyone in the organization knows clearly their duties or jobs, responsibilities, rights and authority.

Formal and informal organizations

Formal organization

Formal organizations are static organizations. This organization is defined as a system of collaboration that involves two or more people and is consciously coordinated to achieve certain goals. In this organization, relationships and shared goals are clearly defined. Every element in the organization has a clear position, function and task.

Informal organization

Informal organization is a collection of relationships between individuals without shared goals. Finally this relationship without being based on common goals. In this organizing system, relationships are influenced by feelings and unclear goals. In addition, the position, duties and functions in this organization are unclear.

Organizing Principles

To be able to carry out the organizing function effectively, a manager should have certain guidelines so that they can make decisions and act according to the decisions taken. The following are organizing principles that can be used so that the organizing function in management can be carried out effectively.

  1. Principle of work specialization

This principle is often called the Principle of Distribution of Work in the organizing system. Some call it the Division of Labor. What is meant by Work specialization is the division of tasks or complex work into several sub-jobs or parts to its employees.

Each employee is trained to perform certain tasks related to his specialization so that they have the qualifications and abilities related to the given tasks.

Benefits from Job Specialization or Division of Work

In organizing, job specialization or division of labor can increase productivity and can create jobs efficiently. Because every employee performs the same tasks every day so that the work speed and quality of work can be maintained properly.

But on the other hand, the organization’s dependence on these employees will be very high and also cause employee boredom of the same routine and repetitive work. Employee boredom will eventually lead to high levels of absenteeism (absenteeism) and high turnover rates as well.

Therefore, many companies / organizations rotate work to reduce dependence on certain people and to avoid boredom of the same routine and repetitive.

2. Principle of Authority 

Authority or authority is the right to do something, make decisions, order others to do something (or not do something), and the right to allocate resources on behalf of the organization to achieve organizational goals.

Based on the organizing principle, all functions, tasks, authority and relationships between managers and subordinates must be clearly defined and determined. Clarifying the relationship between authority and responsibility can help organizations achieve better and more effective coordination.

3. Principles of the Command Chain

The Command Chain is an important concept for building a strong organizational structure. The Komand Chain can be interpreted as an unbroken line of authority that runs from top management to the lowest level of employees and explains who should be responsible and report to whom. Principles of the Command Chain in the Organizing System, the following terms are known:

Unity of Command

Unity of Command is the Principle of Unity of Command, Employees should take orders from the superior and are responsible for only one manager. If too many Bosses give orders, the employee concerned will find it difficult to distinguish between priorities. This will also cause confusion and not focus on the task that is given.

Scalar Chain

Scalar Chain is a straight line of authority from top to bottom. Every employee must be aware of their position in the Organizational Hierarchy. This line of authority will indicate what is the authority and responsibility.

4. Principle of Delegation of Authority

Delegation of authority is one of the important things in organizing. Without the delegation of authority, a manager must do all the work himself. A manager’s success basically depends very much on his ability to delegate authority and work to his subordinates.

Delegation of authority can be interpreted as delegating authority from a manager to his subordinates to do something or authority to make a decision.

5. Full Range Principles

The range of control in organizing is the number of employees or subordinates that can be effectively controlled by a supervisor at a time, the intended supervisor may be a Supervisor or Manager.

This range of control is very important in knowing the design and dynamics of the group in the organization concerned.

The range of control in a work unit can be different from other work units even in the same organizing. There is no exact number or amount of control over this range, this is because every organization has a different design and shape too.

In addition, the experience and personality of managers and the abilities and behavior of subordinates also influence the amount of this control range.

A narrow range of control makes it easier for a manager to supervise his subordinates and facilitate communication with his subordinates, while a wide range of control can provide more opportunities for subordinates and train subordinates more independent / independent.

The Importance of Organizing

Organizing functions as a tool to integrate and regulate all activities related to personnel, finance, material, and procedures for achieving common goals.

How important is the organizing function?

This function plays an important role in dividing tasks, both individually and in groups. It also creates organizational relationships between members and staff of the organization, and delegates authority well.

The organizing function makes it easy for managers to supervise and determine the employees needed to perform tasks.

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2 komentar pada “Organizing: Definition and Principles

  • Agustus 7, 2020 pada 8:32 pm

    To be able to carry out the organizing function effectively, a manager should have certain guidelines so that they can make decisions and act according to the decisions taken


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